HTTP2 Server Push的研究

2017/01/05 · 底工技艺 ·
HTTP/2

原来的小说出处:
AlloyTeam   

本文首发地址为-iOS HTTP/2 Server Push 查究 |
李剑飞的博客

生命不仅,继续 go go go !!!

1,HTTP2的新特征。

关于HTTP2的新特征,读着可以参照笔者以前的稿子,这里就不在多说了,本篇作品主要讲一下server
push这么些特点。

HTTP,HTTP2.0,SPDY,HTTPS你应当明了的风姿罗曼蒂克对事

 


三番五次echo web框架,后天搞一下http2。

2,Server Push是什么。

总结来说正是当客户的浏览器和服务器在创造链接后,服务器主动将部分能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去恳求那一个财富时就直接从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举七个例证正是:

若果三个页面有3个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器央求index.html的时候,服务器不仅仅重临index.html的内容,同期将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器下一次恳请那2多个文本时就足以平昔从缓存中读取了。

home88一必发 1

HTTP2

What is HTTP/2?
HTTP/2 is a replacement for how HTTP is expressed “on the wire.” It is
not a ground-up rewrite of the protocol; HTTP methods, status codes and
semantics are the same, and it should be possible to use the same APIs
as HTTP/1.x (possibly with some small additions) to represent the
protocol.

The focus of the protocol is on performance; specifically, end-user
perceived latency, network and server resource usage. One major goal is
to allow the use of a single connection from browsers to a Web site.

新的二进制格式(Binary Format卡塔尔
HTTP1.x的解析是依附文本。基于文本左券的格式解析存在天然破绽,文本的展现格局有二种性,要形成强健性思考的现象必然比非常多,二进制则分化,只认0和1的构成。基于这种构思HTTP2.0的商谈深入分析决定使用二进制格式,实现方便人民群众且强壮。

多路复用(MultiPlexing卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎
即延续共享,即每二个request都是是作为连接分享机制的。一个request对应七个id,那样叁个总是上能够有七个request,种种连接的request能够随心所欲的混杂在同步,接受方能够依赖request的
id将request再归于到个别差异的服务端乞求里面。多路复用原理图:

header压缩
HTTP2.0运用encoder来裁减须求传输的header大小,通信两方各自cache风姿罗曼蒂克份header
田野s表,既制止了双重header的传导,又减小了亟待传输的轻重。

服务端推送(server push卡塔尔
同SPDY一样,HTTP2.0也具有server push功能。

3,Server Push原理是何许。

要想明白server
push原理,首先要清楚一些概念。大家明白HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧首要分为那三种档案的次序:

  1. HEADE牧马人S
    frame(央浼再次来到头帧):这种帧重要指点的http央求头消息,和HTTP1的header相像。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧寄存真正的多少content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server
    push的帧,这种帧是促成server push的首要帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤消推送帧):这种帧表示诉求关闭帧,轻松讲正是当client不想接纳一些能源如故选用timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一齐使用时表示谢绝也许关闭server push。

Note:HTTP2.0荣辱与共的帧其实包含10种帧,正是因为尾巴部分数据格式的校勘,才为HTTP2.0带动好多的性状,帧的引入不止有益于压缩数量,也惠及数据的安全性和保险传输性。

摸底了有关的帧类型,上面正是具体server push的贯彻进程了:

  1. 由多路复用大家得以精晓HTTP第22中学对于同一个域名的恳求会动用一条tcp链接而用分化的stream
    ID来区别各自的伸手。
  2. 当client使用stream
    1必要index.html时,server符合规律管理index.html的号召,并得以摸清index.html页面还将要会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client我那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream
    3来推送index.css财富。
  4. server使用stream 1正常的出殡HEADESportageS frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的剧情重回给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得到消息stream 2和stream
    3来抽出推送能源。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADEPRADOS frame和DATA
    frames将财富发送给client。
  7. client得到push的能源后会缓存起来当号令这么些能源时会从直接从从缓存中读取。

下图表示了全方位流程:

home88一必发 2

HTTP/2

变动证书

go run C:gosrccryptotlsgenerate_cert.go --host localhost
2017/11/22 10:06:58 written cert.pem
2017/11/22 10 :06:58 written key.pem

4,Server Push怎么用。

既然server
push这么美妙,那么咱们什么样运用啊?怎么设置服务器push哪些文件呢?

率先并非具有的服务器都帮助server
push,nginx最近还不帮忙这几个特性,能够在nginx的合法博客上得到认证,然而Apache和nodejs都早就支撑了server
push那一个特点,须求表达某个的是server
push那个特点是基于浏览器和服务器的,所以浏览器并未提供对应的js
api来让顾客直接操作和调控push的剧情,所以不能不是由此header新闻和server的安插来兑现具体的push内容,本文主要以nodejs来注脚具体什么运用server
push那大器晚成特点。

有备无患有备无患粮草先行干活:下载nodejs
http2支撑,本地运转nodejs服务。

1. 第生机勃勃咱们运用nodejs搭建基本的server:

JavaScript

var http2 = require(‘http2’);   var url=require(‘url’); var
fs=require(‘fs’); var mine=require(‘./mine’).types; var
path=require(‘path’);   var server = http2.createServer({   key:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),   cert:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’) }, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;     var realPath =
path.join(“my”, pathname);    //这里安装本身的文件名称;       var
pushArray = [];     var ext = path.extname(realPath);     ext = ext ?
ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;     var contentType = mine[ext] ||
“text/plain”;       if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {  
        response.writeHead(200, {             ‘Content-Type’:
contentType         });  
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));       } else
{       response.writeHead(404, {           ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });         response.write(“This request URL ” + pathname + ” was
not found on this server.”);       response.end();     }   });  
server.listen(443, function() {   console.log(‘listen on 443’); });

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var http2 = require(‘http2’);
 
var url=require(‘url’);
var fs=require(‘fs’);
var mine=require(‘./mine’).types;
var path=require(‘path’);
 
var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),
  cert: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’)
}, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = path.join("my", pathname);    //这里设置自己的文件名称;
 
    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";
 
    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {
 
        response.writeHead(200, {
            ‘Content-Type’: contentType
        });
 
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));
 
    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });
 
      response.write("This request URL " + pathname + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }
 
});
 
server.listen(443, function() {
  console.log(‘listen on 443’);
});

这几行代码就是轻易搭建二个nodejs
http2服务,张开chrome,大家得以见到有着央求都走了http2,同一时间也可以证实多路复用的天性。

home88一必发 3

此处必要小心几点:

  1. 创设http2的nodejs服必得需时依据https的,因为今后主流的浏览器都要扶植SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够本身通过OPENSSL生成。
  2. node http2的连锁api和例行的node httpserver相通,能够一向利用。

  3. 安装我们的server push:

JavaScript

var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {        request:
{             accept: ‘*/*’        },       response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’      } });
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

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var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {
       request: {
            accept: ‘*/*’
       },
      response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’
     }
});
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

大家设置了bootstrap.min.css来经过server
push到大家的浏览器,大家能够在浏览器中查阅:

home88一必发 4

能够看来,运营server push的财富timelime一点也非常的慢,大大加快了css的得届时间。

此处必要小心上边几点:

  1. 大家调用response.push(),正是一定于server发起了PUSH_PROMISE
    frame来告诉浏览器bootstrap.min.css将会由server push来得到。
  2. response.push()重返的靶羊时三个符合规律化的ServerResponse,end(),writeHeader()等方法都能够健康调用。
  3. 此间意气风发旦针对某些能源调用response.push()即发起PUSH_PROMISE
    frame后,要盘活容错机制,因为浏览器在后一次伏乞那么些能源时会且只会等待这些server
    push回来的财富,这里要办好超时和容错即上面包车型地铁代码:
  4. JavaScript

    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {        response.writeHead(404, {           
    ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’        });        response.end(‘request
    error’); }   pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message); });   pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’,
    function(err){    console.log(‘finish’); });

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    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {
           response.writeHead(404, {
               ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
           });
           response.end(‘request error’);
    }
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message);
    });
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’, function(err){
       console.log(‘finish’);
    });

    上面的代码你也许会发掘众多和健康nodejs的httpserver不平等的事物,那正是stream,其实任何http2都是以stream为单位,这里的stream其实能够领略成一个号召,更加的多的api可以参照:node-http2home88一必发,。

  5. 最终给大家推荐一个鬼子写的特意服务http2的node
    server有兴趣的能够尝试一下。

HTTP/2 Server Push 是什么

当客商的浏览器和服务器在创立链接后,服务器主动将部分能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去央求那么些财富时就一贯从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举一个例子正是:

倘诺八个页面有3个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器诉求index.html的时候,服务器不仅重返index.html的从头到尾的经过,同期将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器后一次恳请那2七个文本时就足以一贯从缓存中读取了。

正如图所示:

home88一必发 5

Apple-http2ServerPush

echo中的HTTP/2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.GET("/request", func(c echo.Context) error {
        req := c.Request()
        format := `
            <code>
                Protocol: %s<br>
                Host: %s<br>
                Remote Address: %s<br>
                Method: %s<br>
                Path: %s<br>
            </code>
        `
        return c.HTML(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf(format, req.Proto, req.Host, req.RemoteAddr, req.Method, req.URL.Path))
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:1323
Remote Address: [::1]:1905
Method: GET
Path: /request

若果现身错误:
http: TLS handshake error from [::1]:1735: tls: first record does not
look like a TLS handshake.

请检查是否输入的是https

5,Server Push相关难点。

  1. 我们知道未来大家web的财富平常都是坐落CDN上的,那么CDN的优势和server
    push的优势有啥差距吧,到底是哪些异常快啊?那几个主题材料笔者也直接在研讨,本文的连锁demo都只可以算做四个演示,具体的线上施行还在举行中。
  2. 由于HTTP2的片段新特征比如多路复用,server
    push等等都以依照同多个域名的,所以那只怕会对我们事先对于HTTP1的意气风发对优化措施举个例子(财富拆分域名,合併等等)不必然适用。
  3. server
    push不仅能看作拉取静态能源,大家的cgi央求即ajax央浼相通能够行使server
    push来发送数据。
  4. 最完备的结果是CDN域名扶助HTTP2,web server域名也同不时间扶持HTTP2。

 

参考资料:

  1. HTTP2官方正规:
  2. 维基百科:
  3. 1 赞 1 收藏
    评论

home88一必发 6

HTTP/2 Server Push 原理是什么样

要想通晓server
push原理,首先要清楚一些定义。我们通晓HTTP/2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧首要分为那三种等级次序:

  1. HEADEENVISIONS
    frame(央求重回头帧):这种帧主要带领的http须要头音讯,和HTTP1的header近似。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧寄放真正的数码content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server
    push的帧,这种帧是落实server push的关键帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤除推送帧):这种帧表示哀求关闭帧,不难讲正是当client不想选择一些财富依旧选拔timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一齐使用时表示拒绝也许关闭server push。

(PS:HTTP/2相关的帧其实富含10种帧,就是因为尾巴部分数据格式的改良,才为HTTP/2带给非常多的风味,帧的引进不止方便减量,也便于数据的安全性和保证传输性。)

刺探了有关的帧类型,上边就是具体server push的落到实处进程了:

  1. 由多路复用大家得以知晓HTTP/第22中学对于同多个域名的哀告会利用一条tcp链接而用不一致的stream
    ID来差距各自的呼吁。
  2. 当client使用stream
    1乞请index.html时,server不奇怪管理index.html的乞请,并可以摸清index.html页面还将在会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client我那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream
    3来推送index.css财富。
  4. server使用stream 1日常的出殡HEADELacrosseS frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的剧情再次回到给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame获知stream 2和stream
    3来收取推送资源。
  6. server拿到index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE酷路泽S frame和DATA
    frames将财富发送给client。
  7. client获得push的财富后会缓存起来当倡议这一个能源时会从第一手从从缓存中读取。

golang.org/x/net/http2

文档地址:

获取:
get golang.org/x/net/http2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "html"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "golang.org/x/net/http2"
)

func main() {
    var srv http.Server
    http2.VerboseLogs = true
    srv.Addr = ":8080"
    // This enables http2 support
    http2.ConfigureServer(&srv, nil)

    http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hi tester %qn", html.EscapeString(r.URL.Path))
        ShowRequestInfoHandler(w, r)
    })
    // Listen as https ssl server
    // NOTE: WITHOUT SSL IT WONT WORK!!
    log.Fatal(srv.ListenAndServeTLS("cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}
func ShowRequestInfoHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "text/plain")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Method: %sn", r.Method)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Protocol: %sn", r.Proto)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Host: %sn", r.Host)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RemoteAddr: %sn", r.RemoteAddr)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RequestURI: %qn", r.RequestURI)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "URL: %#vn", r.URL)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Body.ContentLength: %d (-1 means unknown)n", r.ContentLength)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Close: %v (relevant for HTTP/1 only)n", r.Close)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "TLS: %#vn", r.TLS)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "nHeaders:n")
    r.Header.Write(w)
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Hi tester "/"
Method: GET
Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:8080
RemoteAddr: [::1]:2750
RequestURI: "/"
URL: &url.URL{Scheme:"", Opaque:"", User:(*url.Userinfo)(nil), Host:"", Path:"/", RawPath:"", ForceQuery:false, RawQuery:"", Fragment:""}
Body.ContentLength: 0 (-1 means unknown)
Close: false (relevant for HTTP/1 only)
TLS: &tls.ConnectionState{Version:0x303, HandshakeComplete:true, DidResume:false, CipherSuite:0xc02f, NegotiatedProtocol:"h2", NegotiatedProtocolIsMutual:true, ServerName:"localhost", PeerCertificates:[]*x509.Certificate(nil), VerifiedChains:[][]*x509.Certificate(nil), SignedCertificateTimestamps:[][]uint8(nil), OCSPResponse:[]uint8(nil), TLSUnique:[]uint8{0xa6, 0x3c, 0xfe, 0x93, 0x3c, 0x15, 0x4f, 0x74, 0xfc, 0x97, 0xca, 0x73}}

Headers:
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Alexatoolbar-Alx_ns_ph: AlexaToolbar/alx-4.0
Cookie: _ga=GA1.1.981224509.1509938615
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.94 Safari/537.36

Server Push 怎么用

Server Push

Server Push是什么

简短来说正是当顾客的浏览器和服务器在建设构造链接后,服务器主动将大器晚成都部队分能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,这样当浏览器接下去央浼那个财富时就一向从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,升高了速率。举三个例子就是:
若果三个页面有3个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器央求index.html的时候,服务器不独有重回index.html的从头到尾的经过,相同的时间将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器下一次恳请那2五个文本时就足以直接从缓存中读取了。

Server Push原理是怎样

要想了然server
push原理,首先要领悟一些定义。大家领悟HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧主要分为那二种档案的次序:

HEADE安德拉S
frame(乞求再次回到头帧):这种帧重要带领的http央求头新闻,和HTTP1的header相似。

DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧寄放真正的数量content,用来传输。
PUSH_PROMISE
frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server
push的帧,这种帧是兑现server push的关键帧类型。

RST_STREAM(撤废推送帧):这种帧表示乞求关闭帧,简单讲就是当client不想接受一些财富仍旧收受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
frame一齐使用时表示拒却也许关闭server push。

询问了有关的帧类型,上边正是现实server push的落到实处进度了:
由多路复用我们可以精晓HTTP第22中学对此同多少个域名的伸手会选择一条tcp链接而用分化的stream
ID来差别各自的伏乞。
当client使用stream
1诉求index.html时,server不荒谬管理index.html的诉求,并能够识破index.html页面还就要会呈请index.css和index.js。
server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
frame给client告诉client作者那边能够利用stream 2来推送index.js和stream
3来推送index.css能源。
server使用stream 1平时的出殡HEADE奇骏S frame和DATA
frames将index.html的剧情重回给client。
client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame获悉stream 2和stream 3来选取推送财富。
server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE奥德赛S frame和DATA
frames将能源发送给client。
client得到push的财富后会缓存起来当倡议这么些能源时会从第一手从从缓存中读取。

使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量

查阅 HTTP/2 流量的三种办法

  • 在 Chrome 地址栏输入 chrome://net-internals/#http2,使用 Chrome
    自带的 HTTP/2 调节和测验工具;
    使用方便,但受限于 Chrome 浏览器,对于 Chrome 不扶助的 h2c(HTTP/2
    Cleartext,未有配备 TLS 的
    HTTP/2卡塔尔左券无法。同期,这几个工具彰显的消息经过了拆解解析和筛选,非常不足周密。
  • 使用 Wireshark 调试 HTTP/2 流量;
    Wireshark 位于服务端和浏览器之间,当作的是中档人剧中人物,用它查看
    HTTP/2 over HTTPS
    流量时,必得持有网址私钥或许依靠浏览器分享对称密钥,本领解密 TLS
    流量,配置起来比较勤奋。

nghttp2,是叁个用 C 实现的 HTTP/2 库,支持h2c。它能够做为此外软件的风流倜傥部分,为其提供 HTTP/2 相关功用(比方 curl 的
HTTP/2 效率正是用的 nghttp2卡塔尔国。除此而外,它还提供了三个有效的 HTTP/2
工具:

  • nghttp:HTTP/2 客户端;
  • nghttpd:HTTP/2 服务端;
  • nghttpx:HTTP/2 代理,提供 HTTP/1、HTTP/2 等公约期间的转变;
  • h2load:HTTP/2 质量测量检验工具;

Golang1.8中的Server Push

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "io/ioutil"
    "net/http"
)

var image []byte

// preparing image
func init() {
    var err error
    image, err = ioutil.ReadFile("./image.png")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

// Send HTML and push image
func handlerHtml(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    pusher, ok := w.(http.Pusher)
    if ok {
        fmt.Println("Push /image")
        pusher.Push("/image", nil)
    }
    w.Header().Add("Content-Type", "text/html")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, `<html><body><img src="/image"></body></html>`)
}

// Send image as usual HTTP request
func handlerImage(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "image/png")
    w.Write(image)
}
func main() {
    http.HandleFunc("/", handlerHtml)
    http.HandleFunc("/image", handlerImage)
    fmt.Println("start http listening :18443")
    err := http.ListenAndServeTLS(":18443", "server.crt", "server.key", nil)
    fmt.Println(err)
}

浏览器输入:

能够运用插件HTTP/2 and SPDY indicator
chrome://net-internals/#http2

nghttp2 安装

先来用 brew 看一下有未有 nghttp 相关的库:

~ brew search nghttp
nghttp2

看来是有 nghttp2 的,再用 brew 看下要求设置哪些条件:

~ brew info nghttp2
nghttp2: stable 1.21.0 (bottled), HEAD
HTTP/2 C Library
https://nghttp2.org/
Not installed
From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/master/Formula/nghttp2.rb
==> Dependencies
Build: sphinx-doc ✘, pkg-config ✔, cunit ✘
Required: c-ares ✘, libev ✘, openssl ✔, libevent ✘, jansson ✘, boost ✘, spdylay ✘
Recommended: jemalloc ✘
==> Requirements
Optional: python3 ✔
==> Options
--with-examples
    Compile and install example programs
--with-python3
    Build python3 bindings
--without-docs
    Don't build man pages
--without-jemalloc
    Build without jemalloc support
--HEAD
    Install HEAD version

因而看来供给的依靠还挺多。

使用 brew 安装 nghttp2 :

brew install nghttp2

成套安妥后,nghttp2 提供的多少个工具就足以从来用了。

echo框架中的Server Push

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
  <title>HTTP/2 Server Push</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/app.css">
  <script src="/app.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
  <img class="echo" src="/echo.png">
  <h2>The following static files are served via HTTP/2 server push</h2>
  <ul>
    <li><code>/app.css</code></li>
    <li><code>/app.js</code></li>
    <li><code>/echo.png</code></li>
  </ul>
</body>
</html>

main.go

package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.Static("/", "static")
    e.GET("/", func(c echo.Context) (err error) {
        pusher, ok := c.Response().Writer.(http.Pusher)
        if ok {
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.css", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.js", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/echo.png", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
        }
        return c.File("index.html")
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

参考:

home88一必发 7

nghttp

nghttp 做为一个功效生机勃勃体化的 HTTP/2 客商端,非常切合用来查阅和调治 HTTP/2
流量。它帮衬的参数相当多,通过官方文书档案可能 nghttp -h
都能查看。最常用多少个参数如下:

  • -v, –verbose,输出完整的 debug 新闻;
  • -n, –null-out,丢掉下载的数额;
  • -a, –get-assets,下载 html 中的 css、js、image 等外链能源;
  • -H, –header = < HEADE奇骏 >,增加须要底部字段,如 -H’:method:
    PUT’;
  • -u, –upgrade,使用 HTTP 的 Upgrade 机制来合计 HTTP/2 合同,用于
    h2c,详见下边的事例;

以下是选取 nghttp 访问
https://h2o.examp1e.net
的结果。从调节和测量检验消息中得以清楚看出 h2c 协商以至 Server Push 的漫天进程:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net'
[  0.201] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  1.180] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send HEADERS frame <length=39, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):16777216]
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "55542026-169d5"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 92629
[  1.373] recv HEADERS frame <length=126, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=4)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) etag: "55542026-1388"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) content-length: 5000
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=4>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-english-search.js
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=6)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) etag: "55542026-34dd6"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-length: 216534
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=31, flags=0x04, stream_id=6>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/style.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=8)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) etag: "57e0c8aa-1586"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-length: 5510
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=58, flags=0x04, stream_id=8>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/searchstyle.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=10)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) etag: "57e0c8aa-8dd"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-length: 2269
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=27, flags=0x04, stream_id=10>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-english-search.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/style.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/searchstyle.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) cache-control: no-cache
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 06:55:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) etag: "58e494d2-1665"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) set-cookie: h2o_casper=AmgAAAAAAAAAAAAYxfEYAAABSA; Path=/; Expires=Tue, 01 Jan 2030 00:00:00 GMT; Secure
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-length: 5733
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=304, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  1.375] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.566] recv DATA frame <length=16137, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=5000, flags=0x01, stream_id=4>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=4915, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=8>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2269, flags=0x01, stream_id=10>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.766] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33120)
[  1.767] recv DATA frame <length=9065, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2681, flags=0x01, stream_id=8>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.971] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33855)
[  1.971] recv DATA frame <length=10072, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.173] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.577] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.578] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.579] recv DATA frame <length=12762, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.777] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.777] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33241)
[  2.778] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.378] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.579] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33984)
[  3.583] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.779] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.395] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.396] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33975)
[  4.808] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.809] recv DATA frame <length=6379, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  5.010] recv DATA frame <length=3536, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.628] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33281)
[  6.057] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.273] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.924] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.141] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34020)
[  7.574] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.574] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34029)
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.998] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.425] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=4053, flags=0x01, stream_id=6>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.631] recv DATA frame <length=4443, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  8.633] recv DATA frame <length=1290, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.633] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=10, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

理所必然,我们也能够选取 grep 寻找出来 server push 的有关 stream:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net' | grep 'PUSH_PROMISE'
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>

使用 NodeJS 搭建 HTTP/2 服务器

在大前端的时期背景下,顾客端支付不会点 JavaScript
都快混不下去了,笔者近日在作者司前端轮班了两周,再增加此前也写过
ReactNative,但要么觉获得前端变化之快领人感叹,革命还未终了,同志仍需努力啊。

作者们直接上代码:

var http2 = require('http2');// http2
var url=require('url'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/url
var fs=require('fs'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/fs
var mine=require('mine');
var path=require('path'); // 路径

var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.key'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.crt')
}, function(request, response) {

    // var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = './push.json' ;//path.join(pathname,"push.json");    //这里设置自己的文件路径,这是该次response返回的内容;

    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";

    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {

        console.log('success')
        response.writeHead(200, {
            'Content-Type': contentType
        });

        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));

        // 注意 push 路径必须是绝对路径,这是该次 server push 返回的内容
        var pushItem = response.push('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json', {
                response: {
                  'content-type': contentType
                }    
        });
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json','binary'),()=>{
          console.log('newpush end')
        });

        response.end();

    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
      });

      response.write("This request URL " + realPath + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }

});

server.listen(3000, function() {
  console.log('listen on 3000');
});

那边必要注意几点:

  • 创设http2的nodejs服务必得时依照https的,因为未来主流的浏览器都要扶助SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够团结通过OPENSSL生成。
  • node http2的相关api和寻常的node httpserver相近,能够直接使用。

运用 nghttp 测量试验一下大家的代码有未有举行 server push:

~ nghttp -nv 'https://localhost:3000/'
[  0.007] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  0.029] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send HEADERS frame <length=38, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: localhost:3000
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  0.043] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/plain
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.049] recv HEADERS frame <length=34, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  0.049] recv DATA frame <length=35, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:3000
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
[  0.050] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=56, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.050] recv HEADERS frame <length=2, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=21, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

看到了 PUSH_PROMISE 的帧,表明举行了 server push。

风流浪漫律也能够接受chrome查看 server push,如下图所示:

home88一必发 8

chrome 查看 http2 server push

服务端介绍大旨结束。下边大家来介绍一些 iOS 顾客端对 Server Push 的使用。

iOS 使用 HTTP/2 Server Push

Apple 在此地点做的很好,基本完结了顾客端无感调用http/2 server
push。不过作者查阅了略微材料,现在独有iOS 10 扶植 http/2。

直白上代码吧:

#import "ViewController.h"

@interface ViewController ()<NSURLSessionDelegate>

@property(nonatomic,strong)NSURLSession *session;

@end

@implementation ViewController

- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    // Do any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib.

}
#pragma mark - Touch
- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet<UITouch *> *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self urlSession];
}
#pragma mark - 发送请求
- (void)urlSession
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000"];

    //发送HTTPS请求是需要对网络会话设置代理的
    _session = [NSURLSession sessionWithConfiguration:[NSURLSessionConfiguration defaultSessionConfiguration] delegate:self delegateQueue:[NSOperationQueue mainQueue]];

    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
        // 收到该次请求后,立即请求下次的内容
        [self urlSessionPush];

    }];

    [dataTask resume];
}

- (void)urlSessionPush
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json"];
    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
    }];
    [dataTask resume];
}

#pragma mark - URLSession Delegate
- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session didReceiveChallenge:(NSURLAuthenticationChallenge *)challenge completionHandler:(void (^)(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeDisposition, NSURLCredential * _Nullable))completionHandler
{
    // 这里还要设置下 plist 中设置 ATS
    if (![challenge.protectionSpace.authenticationMethod isEqualToString:@"NSURLAuthenticationMethodServerTrust"])
    {
        return;
    }
    NSURLCredential *credential = [[NSURLCredential alloc] initWithTrust:challenge.protectionSpace.serverTrust];
    completionHandler(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeUseCredential,credential);
}


- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session task:(NSURLSessionTask *)task didFinishCollectingMetrics:(NSURLSessionTaskMetrics *)metrics
{
    NSArray *fetchTypes = @[ @"Unknown", @"Network Load", @"Server Push", @"Local Cache"];

    for(NSURLSessionTaskTransactionMetrics *transactionMetrics in [metrics transactionMetrics])
    {

        NSLog(@"protocol[%@] reuse[%d] fetch:%@ - %@", [transactionMetrics networkProtocolName], [transactionMetrics isReusedConnection], fetchTypes[[transactionMetrics resourceFetchType]], [[transactionMetrics request] URL]);

        if([transactionMetrics resourceFetchType] == NSURLSessionTaskMetricsResourceFetchTypeServerPush)
        {
            NSLog(@"Asset was server pushed");
        }
    }
}

- (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning
{
    [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
    // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}

@end

个别看下服务端和客户端的Log:
客户端:

Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[0] fetch:Network Load - https://localhost:3000/
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":" http2.0 server is ok"}
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[1] fetch:Server Push - https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] Asset was server pushed
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":"newPush"}

服务端:

http2-nodeServer npm start

> http2-nodeServer@1.0.0 start /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer
> node index.js

listen on 3000
success
newpush end

看来确实是客商端发出了两遍倡议,可是服务端只响应了叁遍(该次响应+ server
push卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

本文相关德姆o

  • Github:lijianfeigeek

参考文献

  • HTTP2 Server Push的研究 |
    AlloyTeam
  • 使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量 | JerryQu
    的小站
  • objective c – HTTP/2 Server Push in iOS 10 – Stack
    Overflow
  • 使用NSURLSession或者AFN发送HTTPS请求 –
    简书

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